Talking about NZ’s embedded literacy and numeracy approach with Indonesian vocational teachers at AUT


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Recently, I had the tremendous privilege and pleasure of spending a day at Auckland University of Technology (AUT) talking about literacy and numeracy with a group of vocational teachers and tutors from Indonesia.

The group was large. The image above shows half of the team and I need to paste in a second photo below so you can see the other half. Here we go…

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My sincere thanks to Dr Adrian Schoone at AUT for inviting me to join these teachers for a day in their busy schedule. Adrian also deserves credit for the two photos above.

These vocational teachers and other support staff were here on a two-week study tour in October looking at how we teach trades and vocational education in Aotearoa New Zealand.

And as part of our introductions and whakawhanaungatana (getting to know each other), I asked them all to place themselves on a giant map I had projected on the wall.

As you can see below, they came from all over Indonesia – from the West to the East.

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For my part, it was a brief and hopefully fun introduction to literacy, numeracy and the embedded approach that we’ve developed here over the last 10 years.

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We had a play with some of the online tools that we have in New Zealand for literacy and numeracy as well. Luckily, AUT had a computer lab big enough to house us all for an hour or so.

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My students for the day were friendly, engaged and worked hard to transcend some of the language barriers between us.

One of the most interesting things for me was realising how integral approaches from Te Ao Māori are now to any discussion I want to have about this work.

Concepts like ako and tuakana-teina seemed to really resonate with the group and their own cultures.

In fact, some had questions about how they could incorporate aspects of their own indigenous ways of knowing and being into their teaching practice.

Just on that note, according to Wikipedia:

  • there are over 300 ethnic groups speaking more than 700 living languages across the vast Indonesian archipelago.

So these weren’t questions I felt could readily answer, but hopefully, they will open a door to further positive discussion back home.

This, in turn, should feed into the work these excellent teachers are doing to invigorate and reinvigorate vocational education in Indonesia.

Overall, it was an excellent day,  I loved spending time with this group and I’d do it again in a heartbeat.

To my new friends and colleagues:

  • Assalam ‘alaikum. I wish you all the best with your work in Indonesia and hope our paths cross again at some stage.

 

 

Under the hood: Fonofale Pasifika


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The Fonofale is a holistic, Pasifika model of health and wellbeing. As with Durie’s Te Whare Tapa Whā it comes from the healthcare sector.

Where does it come from?

The Fonofale Pasifika model was created by Fuimaono Karl Pulotu-Endemann (2009). Pulotu-Endemann is a Samoan-born, New Zealand-based academic and nursing professional.

What’s it for?

As with Te Whare Tapa Whā it’s designed to help you think about health, education or other aspects of life in a more holistic way.

What is it?

It’s a visual representation of Pasifika values and beliefs. We use the Samoan fale or house to describe the important factors of healthy development.

Here are the parts:

  • The foundation. This is the extended family – the foundation for all Pacific Island cultures.
  • The roof. The stands for the cultural values and beliefs that are the family’s shelter for life. This can include traditional as well as western ways of doing things.
  • The Pou (posts). These connect the family to the culture. They also depend on each other. They are
    • Spiritual. This relates to the sense of wellbeing that comes from Christianity or traditional spirituality or a combination of both.
    • Physical. This relates to the wellbeing and physical health of the body.
    • Mental. This relates to the mind including thinking and emotional wellbeing as well as behaviours.
    • Other. This includes other things like gender, sexual orientation, age, social class, employment, and educational status.

The fale is surrounded by a protective layer. This includes:

  • Environment. This relates to the relationships that Pasifika people have to their physical environment. This can be rural or urban.
  • Context. This dimension relates to the “big picture’ for Pasifika including socio-economic or political situations.
  • Time. This relates to the actual or specific time in history that impacts on Pasifika people.

How is it relevant?

It’s relevant because you can use your knowledge of the Fonofale to enhance your teaching. As with Te Whare Tapa Whā, this knowledge is not limited to just working with the people groups it represents.

This approach is also relevant because it will help create a learning environment that is culturally safe for Pasifika learners.

What does it mean for me?

If you identify as Pasifika, the Fonofale is a framework that allows you to talk about how you probably already work with your learners. If you are not Pasifika, the framework allows you to see your learners, particularly your Pacific Island learners in a different way, perhaps closer to how they see themselves.

Here are some questions from the learner’s point of view to help you focus on each part of the Fonofale model:

  • Do I have support from my family to do this course? (Family).
  • Does this course connect with my Pacific cultural values and beliefs? (Culture).
  • Do I have the resources to do this course? (Physical).
  • Do I believe that I can do this course? (Spiritual).
  • Can I cope with the workload? (Mental).
  • Is there anything that’s going to get in the way of my goals here? (Others).
  • Are my surroundings, including home and work, going to help me achieve? (Environment).
  • Can I afford to do this at the moment? (Context and time).

It may not always be possible to always attend to all dimensions of the Fonofale for all of your Pasifika learners. But one big implication is that if you have learners who are struggling, or who are not engaged, then the Fonofale may help you work out where the problem is and how to deal with it.

But one big implication is that if you have learners who are struggling, or who are not engaged, then the Fonofale may help you work out where the problem is and how to deal with it.

Swimming the River: Family Impact on Education


This is an Aboriginal perspective on education. It’s a great metaphor. And there are clear links to similar discussions we have here on the same topics.

It’s just over 5 minutes long and great food for thought. Hat tip: Rachel Bulliff.

Let me know any thoughts or comments.

History of Maori Literacy and Numeracy: Key events and initiatives


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This list is adapted from a cool interactive timeline which you can view here. However, it’s a little frustrating if you just want to read everything on one page relating to the timeline of Maori literacy and numeracy development from a historical perspective.

So I’ve reproduced the list below. If you want the references you’ll need to go to the interactive version in the link. Also, it’s more a history of New Zealand literacy development rather than just Maori literacy. And… not really much on the numeracy side.

This list also stops at about 2005. Feel free to update it in the comments.

Before 1800

  • Māori, in a number of dialects, was the oral language of New Zealand. Māori primarily relied on
    oral communication, but did also have some other communication forms (such as raranga,
    whakairo.

1815

  • Thomas Kendall, the first resident missionary, published A korao no New Zealand, or, The New Zealander’s first book: being an attempt to compose some lessons for the instruction of natives. This was the first published attempt to record Māori speech in an alphabetic form. Until there was an accepted system of writing, it was difficult to teach reading and writing in Māori.

1816

  • Kendall set up the first school in New Zealand. It had a roll of 33 pupils. Missionaries taught Māori students reading and writing in Māori. Until the 1850s, all schools in New Zealand were private and charged fees.

1820

  • Kendall, T. (1820). A Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of New Zealand was produced and printed. Hongi Hika and Hōhaia Parata Waikato helped Kendall to write this book.

1840

  • The Treaty of Waitangi was signed. Most of the signatures were affixed to the Māori version. At this time, Māori was the dominant language in New Zealand’s social, commercial, and political life, as well as the language of mass education.

1842

  • Foreign words were being rendered into the Māori language (giving English words a Māori semblance e.g. pene from the English word pen).
  • Most Māori between the ages of ten and 30 could read and write their own language.
  • Many Europeans settlers had low literacy skills.
  • First Māori Language Newspaper published: Te Karere O Nui Tireni (The Messenger of New Zealand)

1847

  • Governor Grey put into effect the Education Ordinance 1847. One aim was to place children into boarding schools away from tribal influences.
  • The Education Ordinance 1847 also set aside 5 percent of the colony’s revenue for education. Schools were supported on condition that lessons were given in English.

1852

  • The Constitution Act 1852 was passed. Provincial councils took responsibility for education.

1858

  • The Government directed that instruction should be in the English language and in the ordinary subjects of primary English education.

1867

  • The Native Schools Act 1867 was passed. A national system of day schools for Māori children
    was set up, with the teaching of English as its central task. Use of the Māori language was
    effectively forbidden in schools. This was later rigorously enforced. No fees were charged to
    attend. Māori village schools were administered by the Native Affairs Department.

1877

  • The Education Act 1877 allowed the government to take control of schools. Primary education was free, but secondary schools charged fees. Education was made compulsory for all European children aged from seven to 13.

1889

  • The first free kindergartens started operating.

1900

  • By now, use of the Māori language was banned from the classroom and often the playground. (Many Māori saw school as a way for their children to learn English and thereby gain access to the new political and economic order.)

1901

  • The School Attendance Act 1901 was passed. Formal education was made compulsory for both Māori and European children.

1913

  • 90 per cent of Māori children are native Māori speakers.Te Puke ki Hikurangi, Te Mareikura and other Māori newspapers publish national and international news and events in Māori as well as extensive coverage of farming activities.

1917 (approx)

  • The Workers Education Association was set up.

1920

  • By this time, many children were progressing to secondary education.
  •  Sir Āpirana Ngata begins lecturing Māori communities about the need to promote Māori language use in homes and communities, while also promoting English language education for Māori in schools.

1922

  • The first Correspondence School classes began.

1936

  • Secondary education was made free to all children aged from 14 to 19.

1940s

  • Māori urban migration begins.

1944

  • The school leaving age was raised to 15.

1955

  • The National Advisory Committee on Māori Education was formed.
  • The committee’s first task was to merge Native Schools with public schools.
  • This process continued until 1964 when the last Native School was closed.

1960 

  • Māori action groups such as Nga Tamatoa and Te Reo Māori began to alert the population to the
    consequences of the loss of the Māori language.
    Many Māori began leaving their marae to move to the cities. This broke whanau and language
    ties.
  • Television and other mass media broadcast almost exclusively in English.

1961

  • Hunn Report describes the Māori language as a relic of ancient Māori life.
  • The Māori Education Foundation Act 1961 directed money towards the education of Māori.

1971

  • A report from the National Advisory Committee on Māori Education advanced the concept of bilingual education

1974

  • The Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 redefines who can call themselves Māori.
  • The first adult literacy scheme was established in Hawke’s Bay.

1975 

  • The Waitangi Tribunal Act 1975 establishes the Waitangi Tribunal.
  • Ngāti Raukawa, Ngāti Toa and Te Āti Awa initiated Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, a 25 year long tribal development exercise which emphasises Māori language development.

1978

  • Rūātoki School becomes the first bilingual school in New Zealand.

1979-1980

  • Te Ataarangi was established to teach the Māori language to individuals and families.

1979

  • Thirteen Rural Education Activity Programmes (REAPs) were established.

1980

  • Employment training schemes included basic literacy skills.
  • Reading Recovery was introduced in schools.

1981

  • Te Wānanga o Raukawa was established in Ōtaki. The traditional meaning of wānanga iwi/tribal
    based house of higher learning. In the modern sense the term translates to a tertiary institution.
    Te Whare Wānanga o Raukawa was set up by the confederation of tribes from Te Āti Awa, Ngāti
    Raukawa, and Ngāti Toarangatira. It is devoted to the teaching of mātauranga Māori (Māori
    knowledge). For more information see: http://www.twor.ac.nz/

1982

  • The Adult Reading and Learning Assistance (ARLA) Federation was established as a national organisation.
  • The first kōhanga reo were established. Kōhanga reo is a pre-school. Children and parents are immersed in Māori language and tikanga. Tikanga may be translated as ways of doing things or culturally accepted behaviours.

1985

  • Hoani Waititi — the first kura kaupapa Māori — was established. Kura kaupapa Māori are primary and secondary schools where all classes are taught in the Māori language and tikanga is observed. English language is part of the core curriculum. 

1987

  • The Māori Language Act 1987 is passed, giving Māori language statutory recognition.

1989

  • Kura kaupapa Māori are formally recognised under the Education Act 1989.
  • The Aotearoa Institute (later Te Wānanga o Aotearoa) established as a Private Training
    Establishment – Te Kuratini o Ngā Waka. Te Wānanga O Aotearoa was the first tertiary institution
    focusing on delivering vocational courses in a Māori environment.

1991

  • The Government funded the first workplace literacy programmes in Fisher and Paykel and Bluebird Foods.
  • Workbase was established as a development unit within the ARLA Federation.
  • Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi opened (gained official Wānanga status
    1997). Awanuiārangi is an ancestor of iwi (tribes) who descend from the Mataatua canoe.

1994

  • Te Whare Ako was established by Workbase, at Tasman Pulp and Paper Company Limited, as
    the first workplace literacy programme provided by Māori staff for Māori learners.

1996

  • Workbase was established as a separate organisation.
  • The International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) was carried out in New Zealand.  The first publication about the IALS results was published.

1997

  • The ARLA Federation was mandated by the membership as a Treaty-based organisation and changed its name to Literacy Aotearoa.
  • Various articles interpreting the IALS results were published.

2001

  • More Than Words: The New Zealand Adult Literacy Strategy was released by the Ministry of Education.
  • A chief adult literacy adviser was appointed at the Ministry of Education.
  • The Draft Quality Standard for adult vocational literacy providers was trialled.
  • The Adult Literacy Learning Pool Subsidy (ALLP) was established by the Ministry of Education. This was later renamed the Foundation Learning Pool (FLP).
  • The Workplace Literacy Fund (WLF) was established by TEC.
  • The Adult Literacy Achievement Framework (ALAF) was developed and piloted.
  • Te Kawai Ora: Report of the Māori Adult Literacy Working Party was published as a response to More Than Words.

2002

  • The Ministry of Education commissioned adult literacy research. This included a literature review, an observational study, and the mapping of adult literacy and foundation learning opportunities.
  • The first Tertiary Education Strategy (TES) was published by the Ministry of Education. It includes Strategy Two, Te Rautaki Mātauranga Māori (Contribute to the Achievement of Māori Development Aspirations) ; Strategy Three, Raise Foundation Skills So That All People Can Participate In Our Knowledge Society , and Strategy Five, Educate For Pacific Peoples’ Development and Success.

2003

  • The Ministry of Education released a Statement of Tertiary Education Priorities for 2003-2004.
  • The draft Adult Literacy Quality Mark (dALQM) was developed and trialled by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA).

2004

  • Draft Key Competencies were published by the Ministry of Education.
  • Draft Descriptive Standards were published by the Ministry of Education.
  • The Learning for Living initiative was established as a joint government initiative.
  • Learning for Living exploratory projects were established.

2005

  • Learning for Living professional development clusters in reading and numeracy were established.
  • The Foundation Learning Quality Assurance (FLQA) arrangements were developed (building on dALQM). 
  • The Adult Literacy Educator’s Qualification was registered by NZQA.
  • The Ministry of Education released a new Statement of Tertiary Education Priorities for 2005- 2007.
  • The FLQA arrangements were trialled.
  • Embedded literacy pilot programmes were established with five industry training organisations (ITOs).
  • The draft Foundation Learning Progressions for listening, speaking, reading, writing, and numeracy were published by the Tertiary Education Commission.
  • The Ministry of Education released a new Tertiary Education Strategy 2007-2012 incorporating Statement of Tertiary Education Priorities 2008-10. The Strategy includes amongst areas for focus ‘strong foundations in literacy, numeracy and language’.

Free prize inside (if you come to my workshop on Thursday at the LN Symposium)


Maori Cards

This is a limited edition set of photo-cards that we made up a few years ago. I had them reprinted recently and I’ve got a bunch to give away on Wednesday and Thursday. It’s unlikely that we’ll reprint these again.

It’s small image on your screen, but each card is the size of a regular postcard.

They’re pretty cool… We use them as a resource to get people talking about Maori literacy and numeracy. The photographs are amazing and you’ll get a sense of traditional and contemporary aspects of Maori literacy and numeracy come together in the present.

We’ll give away a free set to every person who comes along to Graeme’s workshop at the LN Symposium on Thursday. We might ask you for your email address so we can contact you about the NZDipALNE when it’s ready…

If you can’t make it to the workshop then find me during the two days and ask me for a set anyway.

 

Please support the new Adult Literacy & Numeracy Education qualifications


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Well… they’re out for consultation. Here’s the breakdown from the NZQA website. This is just out and it’s now in the public domain for consultation.

Key points first: Please support the need for three distinct ALNE qualifications. These are

  1. the 40 credit NZCALNE (Voc) which replaces the NCALNE (Voc).
  2. the 80 credit NZCALNE (Ed) which replaces the NCALNE (Ed).
  3. the 120 credit NZDipALNE which replaces the NDipALNE

We think it’s going to be a coherent framework. Details still need to be fleshed out however…

The 120 credit Diploma still has some question marks attached. We think there is both a need and a demand. Please show your support for this in the comment section in the online NZQA survey which you can complete here.

Here’s how the qualifications break down. I’m pasting in from the NZQA documents:

New Zealand Certificate in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education (Vocational/Workplace) Level 5 – (40 Credits)

This qualification is for existing practitioners who seek to develop the literacy and numeracy skills of adult learners within the context of a training or education programme.

Graduates will have applied knowledge, skills and attributes required to embed literacy and numeracy into vocational or workplace programmes.

This qualification supports the New Zealand government strategy of developing the literacy and numeracy of adults.

Graduates of this qualification will be able to:

Design (10 credits)

  • Design embedded literacy and numeracy strategies to enhance learner outcomes in a vocational or workplace programme with consideration of New Zealand’s unique context.
    • Notes: This outcome includes practice informed by historical, political and organisational contexts. Consideration will be given to add these to the qualification specifications, at the next stage of the review process.

Deliver (20 credits)

  • Foster an environment which gives primacy to learners and their learning.
    • Notes: Environment includes a values-based framework that respects: the mana and diverse cultural backgrounds of learner, the Treaty, the unique characteristics of adult learners as individuals (including literacy and numeracy skills) and what they bring to their learning, collegiality with colleagues, professional relationships with learners, … This outcome is not to be assessed separately but in conjunction with assessment of other outcomes.)
  • Apply embedded literacy and numeracy strategies in a vocational or workplace programme with consideration of New Zealand’s unique context

Assess and Evaluate (10 credits)

  • Use assessment and moderation of literacy and numeracy processes to enhance student learning.
  • Evaluate own practice to improve learner achievement through embedding literacy and numeracy.

New Zealand Certificate in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education (Educator)
Level 5 – (80 Credits)

This qualification is for educators who seek to develop specialist expertise in adult literacy and numeracy education.

Graduates will have broad applied knowledge, skills and attributes required to apply a literacy and numeracy framework to a range of teaching and learning contexts.

This qualification supports the New Zealand government strategy of developing the literacy and numeracy of adults.

Graduates of this qualification will be able to:

Design (30 credits)

  • Design for learning to meet diverse literacy and numeracy needs of learners in a range of contexts.
    • Notes: This outcome includes practice informed by education theories, Māori literacy and numeracy concepts, approaches and frameworks, and current trends and research. Consideration will be given to add these to the qualification specifications, at the next stage of the review process.

Deliver (30 credits)

  • Foster an environment which gives primacy to learners and their learning.
    • Notes: Environment includes a values-based framework that respects: the mana and diverse cultural backgrounds of learner, the Treaty, the unique characteristics of adult learners as individuals (including literacy and numeracy skills) and what they bring to their learning, collegiality with colleagues, professional relationships with learners, … This outcome is not to be assessed separately but in conjunction with assessment of other outcomes.)
  • Select and apply adult literacy and numeracy teaching strategies and activities to meet learner needs.

Assess and Evaluate (15 credits)

  • Select and use assessment processes to identify specific literacy and numeracy learner needs and strengths.
  • Evaluate own adult literacy and numeracy practice using a range of sources for continuous improvement.

Collaboration (5 credits)

  • Collaborate with other education professionals to enhance literacy and numeracy outcomes.

New Zealand Diploma in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education Level 6 – (120 Credits)

This qualification is for experienced educators who aspire to a leadership role in adult literacy and numeracy education.

Graduates will have in depth applied knowledge, skills and attributes required to be effective in a leadership role within adult literacy and numeracy education

This qualification supports the New Zealand government strategy of developing the literacy and numeracy of adults. Graduates will be able to inform organisational change and capability in adult literacy and numeracy education.

Graduates of this qualification will be able to:

Literacy and Numeracy Skills Development (30 credits)

  • Design for learning to meet diverse literacy and numeracy needs of learners in a range of dynamic contexts.
  • Analyse the learning environment in order to implement literacy and numeracy interventions and improve professional practice.

Issues, Theories and Trends (30 credits)

  • Analyse the educational environment in relation to literacy and numeracy issues, theories, trends and research as a basis for informing own and others’ decision making, innovation and change.
  • Utilise theory- based literature to investigate factors of Te Ao Māori to improve literacy and numeracy practice.

Lead (60 credits)

  • Analyse the learning environment in order to implement literacy and numeracy interventions and improve professional practice
  • Notes: Literacy intervention = 30 credits. Numeracy intervention = 30 credits

“Weaving” versus “tools for your toolbox” as metaphors for embedding literacy and numeracy


embedding = weaving

I’ve talked about metaphors before here. But I just wanted to add a few thoughts. My thinking behind this is that when I working with tutors, I often want to describe what we do in terms of something else that I think they already understand.

Since starting this work in 2007 the main metaphor that I’ve used is the “tools for your toolbox” approach. This metaphor works for trades because trades people use physical tools and they get it when I talk about teaching approaches, strategies, and activities as literacy and numeracy “tools” that go in their bigger “toolbox” of education and training tools.

But we also talk about embedding literacy and numeracy in terms of weaving. This metaphor comes from the world of Maori education. I wish it was original to me but it’s totally not. I’ve heard it used by many different Maori educators in different contexts and I’ve started using it myself.

It works really well. For one thing, it feels kind of organic. This is important, especially for educators who are looking for meaning outside of the more academically focused western intellectual model of mainstream education.

Another thing about the weaving metaphor is that it allows people to think of their teaching and training as a kind of real object with these mixed threads woven through it. On the one hand there are the the threads relating to content and context. And on the other, there are another set of threads relating to literacy and numeracy.

This thinking also underlies the Maori early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki which takes the woven flax mat as a metaphor.

Finally, by thinking of the embedding process, educators can see how they are also weaving other things through their training – often in addition to the literacy and numeracy which should now be business as usual. And here I’m thinking specifically of the Kaupapa Maori value system that really drives Maori and other educators working in this space.

For those new to this kind of thinking, if you see these values (wellbeing, contribution, belonging, language, exploration, for e.g.) as a further thread running though your training and interactions, you can do what we do with the literacy and numeracy. This is to make it explicit to your learners, have great conversations with them about it, and explicitly embed the value system.

I’m not saying that learners can’t learn these values or thrive in this kind of environment when they are more implicit, but our foundations-focused learners really need these values and given the chance can learn them explicitly. Just like with literacy and numeracy.

So there you go. Get the value system out of stealth mode as well and onto the radar.

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