Cultural Capability Trial for Foundation-Level Educators

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Here’s something new from my He Taunga Waka Colleagues at Ako Aotearoa. They would love you to trial new content they have been writing.

The focus is on working more effectively with your Māori and Pasifika learners.

You’ll need to visit Pathways Awarua to trial the new material and there’s a link to a survey to complete at the end. Your comments will be anonymous.

Please participate. Your comments will help make this work even better. If you already have an account, just log in with that. You’ll see a screen like the one in the image below once you’re underway

Cheers, Graeme

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Kia ora tātou/ Talofa/ Malo e lelei/Kia orana/ Bula vinaka/ Greetings!

We are pleased to announce the launch the Cultural Capability trial for tertiary foundation-level educators!

General information

The purpose of this trial by the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC) is to improve the cultural competencies of educators across the tertiary sector.

The trial is based on cultural values – values will guide any educator to attain a broader understanding of their adult learners. The Māori Cultural Capabilities pathway trial focuses on the key value of ‘ako’, the concept of learning and teaching. The Pasifika Cultural Competencies pathway focuses on ‘values’ that are embedded and practised in cultural and everyday settings of Pasifika people.

What to do?

Firstly, read the attached information. The activities are located on the Pathways Awarua site, and here is the link to get there – https://www.pathwaysawarua. com/

Reminders

  • Read the information sheet first
  • Login by creating a username and password
  • Complete the survey monkeys after each pathway to give feedback
  • This trial will remain open till the 28 February 2018

Thank you for your participation,

The He Taunga Waka team from Ako Aotearoa

Information sheet for Cultural Capability trial 2018

Greetings/kia ora /kia orana/talofalava /malo e lelei /takalofa lahi atu /ni sa bula vinaka!

The purpose of the Cultural Pathways initiative by the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC) is to improve the cultural capability of educators across the tertiary sector. For this trial, the TEC are focussing on Māori and Pasifika cultural capability. This information sheet provides details for about the Cultural Capability trial created by the He Taunga Waka team from Ako Aotearoa.

Tell me more about this Cultural Pathway trial?

The cultural pathways consist of some sample activities which are interactive, for trialists to engage in, and respond accordingly. There are two pathways for trialists to complete; the Māori pathway focuses on ‘ako’ (the concept of learning and teaching); and the Pasifika pathway focuses on ‘values’ that are embedded and practised in cultural settings or instilled in the everyday actions of Pasifika people.

Where are they?

These two pathways and activities can be found on the Pathways Awarua platform, an online site for adult learners seeking to sharpen their literacy and numeracy skills in real-life situations such as driving skills, dealing with money, and health and safety. It is intended that educators (such as tutors, kaiako, lecturers, and training advisors) will be able to access these cultural capability pathways for their professional development too (easy instructions are found below).

How much time will it take?

This trial takes about 45-60 minutes, and there is a short survey to complete at the end of each Pathway.

How do I access the trial?

  1. Click on  https://www.pathwaysawarua.com/   and create a login-username and password.
  2. Click on go
  3. Select a pathway (Māori or Pasifika) on the left of your screen and complete the activities.
  4. Click on the link to a short surveymonkey to complete for that pathway.
  5. Go back and select the other pathway (Māori or Pasifika) and complete the activities.
  6. Click on the link to a short surveymonkey to complete for that pathway.

What happens after the trial?

We assure trialists that your personal details and written responses will be kept confidential and private. Your responses in the surveys will inform the design of further activities on these two cultural pathways. Information gathered in the surveys will be used for educative and research purposes only; and primarily for the benefit of tertiary educators.

We wish to finally thank you for your participation in this trial

The He Taunga Waka team from Ako Aotearoa

 

What’s the problem? The impact of colonisation

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The impact of colonisation is associated with low levels of literacy and numeracy. Colonisation refers to the loss of sovereignty by one group to another group. Here we’re talking about the colonisation of Māori by the British Crown and European settlers.

In the 1800s colonisation directly impacted Māori life expectancy. Sometimes this was from warfare, but often it was from illness and introduced diseases.

Māori had no immunity to illnesses brought by settlers that were common in Europe. This included measles, mumps, and whooping cough. All of these took a terrible toll among Māori In the European population, these diseases often affected children. But among Māori, these affected both adults and children.

In the 19th century too, introduced respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and tuberculosis also killed large numbers of Māori.

Loss of Māori land following the 1860s wars, Crown purchase and the Native Land Court led to the displacement of large numbers of Māori. Losing their land reduced many tribes to poverty and living conditions that were overcrowded and unhygienic.

Loss of land also meant they lost access to traditional food sources. Poor diet helped disease take hold and spread.

Māori life expectancy began to increase in the late 1890s and the population began to recover as Māori gained immunity to European diseases.

Despite improvements in the first half of the 20th century, Māori were also still severely disadvantaged socially and economically. This meant poorer housing and nutrition than Pākehā, or non-Māori New Zealanders.

In 1979, just 139 years after the signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi (The Treaty of Waitangi), Māori academics believed that the loss of te reo was so great that it would suffer language death.

The main cause of this was colonisation and a state policy of assimilation. In some cases, there are specific pieces of legislation regarding education that we can link to this loss.

Since the 1970s though we have seen many gains including:

  • The development of Māori-language immersion kindergartens (kōhanga reo), schools (Kura Kaupapa), and tertiary institutions (whare wānanga).
  • The recognition of Māori as an official language of Aotearoa New Zealand in 1987.
  • Māori broadcasting since 1989 and Māori television since 2004.

The impact of colonisation on Māori is far reaching. It extends into to politics, spirituality, economics, society and psychology.

For Māori, colonisation means dealing with the impacts of devastating loss including:

  • loss of land
  • loss of power
  • loss of identity
  • loss of status
  • loss of language
  • loss of culture

The impact has been intergenerational. And this is not a comprehensive list, but enduring impacts include:

  • Low levels of participation and achievement in positive indicators such as education and economic well-being.
  • Over-representation in negative indicators such as drug and alcohol abuse and imprisonment rates.

Some questions to think about

Here’s a good place to stop and think about the impact of colonisation on your own learners. These questions are not assessed, but thinking about them will help you answer the assessment task.

  1. What do you see as the enduring effects of colonisation in education?
  2. What do you do in your teaching or training to value Māori language or culture?
  3. What more could you do to strengthen the overall well-being of Māori and other learners in your care?

Low adult literacy and numeracy levels: What’s causing the problem?

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It’s difficult to say exactly what is causing the problem of low adult literacy and numeracy in Aotearoa New Zealand. What we can say though is that low adult literacy and numeracy skills are associated with certain kinds of things.

Just because two things happen together doesn’t always mean that one causes the other. This is an easy mistake to make. In technical terms, we can say this: “Correlation does not imply causation.”

So the point is to be a bit cautious when we’re talking about what we think is causing the problem.

That said, here’s a list of things that often pop up when we talk about what’s causing low skills in the adult population in literacy and numeracy:

  • The impact of colonisation.
  • Socio-economic factors.
  • Cycles of poverty.
  • Poor teaching.
  • Technology.

We’ll have a look at each of these next.

Under the hood: Te whare tapa wha

tapawha2Te Whare Tapa Whā is a holistic model of health and wellbeing also known as hauora. Originally used in the healthcare sector, it’s now used in education and other settings including prisoner rehabilitation and career development.

Where does it come from?

Māori health expert Mason Durie developed the Whare Tapa Whā model of health in 1982. Professor Durie has affiliations with the Rangitane, Ngāti Kauwhata and Ngāti Raukawa tribes of New Zealand.

For over 40 years, Durie has been at the forefront of a transformational approach to Māori health and has played major roles in building the Māori health workforce.

What’s it for?

It’s for helping you think in a holistic way about health, education or any other issue affecting yourself or someone else.

What is it?

It’s a visual representation that shows a Māori wellbeing in four dimensions:

  • Taha wairua – the spiritual domain or well-being of your learner
  • Taha tinana – the physical domain or well-being of your learner
  • Taha whānau – the family or social well-being or domain of your learner
  • Taha hinengaro – the mental domain or well-being of your learner

Each of these are the different sides of a wharenui (meeting house).

In education, it’s a way of thinking about your learners more holistically. If each learner is like a whare, then it’s important that they are strong in each of the four dimensions. For example, if one or more sides of the house is weak or broken, then it’s likely the roof will fall in.

This way of thinking about our learners means that we have to think beyond the kinds of content that we want to teach. All four dimensions are necessary for strength and stability.

How is it relevant?

It’s relevant because you can use your knowledge of Te Whare Tapa Whā to enhance your teaching. This knowledge is drawn from Māori culture, but it’s not limited to working just with Māori.

Te Whare Tapa Whā explains the journey of many Māori learners and also outlines the tutor’s perspective towards this.

When we talk about a learner from the context of Te Whare Tapa Whā we place our learner at the centre. And that means that we can look at our learners in four different ways.

Most of our students go through a journey into our organisations. From a student’s perspective, this is the kind of conversation that they’re having with themselves even before they enter your classroom:

  1. Do I believe I can do this course? (Taha wairua).
  2. Do I have the resources I need to do this course? (Taha tinana).
  3. Do I have the support to do this course? (Taha whānau)
  4. Can I cope with the work in this course? (Taha hinengaro

What does it mean for me?

If you identify as Māori, the Whare Tapa Whā is a framework that allows you to talk about how you probably already work with your learners. If you are not Māori, the framework allows you to see your learners, particularly your Māori learners through new eyes.

It also means that the things that you think are the priority in your teaching environment, might not be for some of your learners. For example, learners who haven’t eaten breakfast are less likely to be interested in your great teaching resources.

One big implication is that you need to think about whether you’ve attended to all four domains from a Māori perspective.

Teach better – What is literacy for Maori?

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What’s the definition?

For Māori:

Literacy is the lifelong journey of building the capacity to ‘read’ and shape Māori and other worlds (p.11).

Where does this definition come from?

Maori Adult Literacy Reference Group. (2001). Te kawai ora. Reading the world, reading the word, being the world. Report to the Hon. Tariana Turia, Associate Minister of Māori Affairs. Wellington.

What are some key features?

  • Written by Māori for Māori.
  • Holistic, philosophical, spiritual.
  • Incorporates the idea of being literate in Māori and English.
  • Informed by Matauranga Māori (Māori knowledge and Māori ways of knowing) as well kaupapa Māori (Māori principles and values).

How is this definition relevant to my teaching context?

If you live in New Zealand, then this definition is relevant. Our learners are Māori. Many of our tutors teach courses where they have 100% Māori learners. And many of these learners have experienced repeated failure in mainstream education. So have many non Maori as well if we’re honest.

The point is that if we want to make a difference to these learners (and many others) we need to look at different ways of teaching and learning.

As we’ll see later on, we can tap into Māori ways of thinking about teaching that can disrupt – in a good way – the kinds of mainstream approaches we’ve always used.

Mainstream approaches to teaching and learning are grounded in a Western academic tradition that goes back to Greek and Roman times. It’s not wrong. But it is wrong for some of our learners.

If you can embrace a more holistic view of literacy and numeracy, you’ll find that you can become a better teacher. It doesn’t matter if you are Māori or not. What matters is some empathy for your learners and an openness to look at other ways of knowing and being.

Have you ever thought about the difference between reading and “reading”? For your learners this includes many things that we don’t think of as traditional literacy. But they matter.

Here’s some of the things that literacy can include under a more holistic and Māori way of thinking about the world:

  • Body language
  • Facial expressions
  • Geography
  • Oral traditions including stories, songs, genealogies, and prayer
  • Navigation
  • Reading traditional symbols
  • Whakairo (carving)
  • Raranga (weaving)
  • Ta Moko (tattooing)

Teach better – What is numeracy?

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(ii) Numeracy

This next definition comes from the PIIAC study as well.

What’s the definition?

Numeracy is the ability to use, interpret and communicate mathematical information and ideas in order to engage in and manage the mathematical demands of a range of situations (p.4).

Where does this definition come from?

Ministry of Education and Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (2016). Skills and Education: Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Wellington: Ministry of Education and Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment.

What are some key features?

Understanding:

  • Quantity
  • Dimension and shapes
  • Patterns
  • Data and chance
  • Visual displays.

How is this definition relevant to my teaching context?

As with the definition for literacy, this one is important because it allows us to talk about our learners, our country and other countries when it comes to numeracy.

Also, it has a practical focus on using maths for a purpose. As with literacy, numeracy shouldn’t be mindless repetition and practice. It should be about solving problems that have meaning in the context of every life and work.

This is relevant to your teaching because this isn’t about the maths that you, or your learners, got at high school. This is about how to use maths ideas and knowledge to do stuff that you need to do.

The kinds of situations that are relevant to your learners and your teaching should provide you with the kinds of maths and numeracy that you need to do. But more on that in the next definition.

 

How do I teach better?

theres-a-better-way-to-teachThat’s my question for this year. And hopefully for you as well.

Stay tuned…

New Adult Literacy and Numeracy Standards Released for the New Qualifications

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Well, it’s taken a while… but it’s finally official. Here’s what you need to know:

  • We have a new suite of unit standards for adult literacy and numeracy education.
  • These new standards are for the new qualifications including the New Zealand Certificate in Adult Literacy & Numeracy Education (Vocational/Workplace).
  • The old standards are now expiring, but are still fit for purpose for assessment until 31 December 2018. So there is roughly a two-year transition period.
  • The content for Unit Standard 21204 has been broken up.
  • The new NZCALNE (Voc) will eventually replace the current NCALNE (Voc), just like the current NCALNE (Voc) replaced the original NCALE (Voc).

In terms of the new NZCALNE (Voc), there are four new standards. These are:

  • Unit 29622. Describe adult literacy and numeracy education in Aotearoa New Zealand. 5 credits
  • Unit 2962. Design strategies to embed adult literacy and numeracy in the delivery of a training or education programme. 10 credits
  • Unit 29624. Plan and facilitate embedded adult literacy and numeracy skills development in a training or education programme. 15 credits
  • Unit 2962. Use assessment to strengthen adult literacy and numeracy teaching and learning. 10 credits

A caution:

  • These standards are not the roadmap to delivering the new qualification. But they do provide a clear guide to what content the new NZCALNE (Voc) should assess as part of programme delivery. It will be up to providers to determine what that delivery roadmap should look like.

The good news:

  • As ALEC already has consent to assess the ALNE standards to level 6, we’ll automatically get this consent extended to the new standards.
  • We submitted our course approval documentation to the NZQA months ago for delivery of the new qualification but it’s been in limbo land pending the release of these new standards. This is now underway again on the NZQA side and we’re waiting to hear on its status.
  • I’ve worked on both the new qualification and the new standards as part of the subject expert group. This means any new content will incorporate the best of what ALEC has had to offer to date, as well as our most current thinking and knowledge about embedding literacy and numeracy into training.

The plan:

  • Our plan is to begin delivering the new version of the qualification with the new standards as soon as we can. Hopefully, this will be by the start of the academic year in 2017. This will depend on how much longer the course approval process takes and then how quickly we can move to develop the new content required.
  • We’ll keep you updated here on any progress.

Any questions? Please let me know.

 

 

From the NZQA: Review of Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education unit standards

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NZQA have now officially listed the new standards for the NCALNE (Voc). I’ve pasted in their blurb below. But I’ll do a shorter summary of my own later today. Cheers, Graeme

Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education (ALNE) unit standards

In September 2016, following the review of ALNE unit standards, a new suite of ALNE standards were approved for listing. The new suite of standards is now available in Domain – Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education.

The new ALNE standards will contribute toward the government strategy of developing the literacy and numeracy of adults and improving the quality of teaching within the context of training or education programmes.

The ALNE unit standards were reviewed to support the New Zealand Certificate in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education (Vocational/Workplace) (Level 5) [Ref: 2754] and the New Zealand Certificate in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education (Educator) (Level 5) [Ref: 2755]. The standards align with the graduate profile outcomes in content and credit value.

An expert panel, comprised of representation from the tertiary sector (polytechnic, private training establishment and university), the New Zealand Council for Educational Research, an ALNE consultant, and the national moderator, met to review these standards. Changes proposed by the panel were circulated to the wider network for consultation and endorsement.

Main changes

  • Literacy and numeracy teaching and learning are not treated in separate standards. Both literacy and numeracy are covered in all standards.
  • The standards have taken on a more applied approach, taking the theory of ALNE teaching and learning into practice.
  • The credit value of the standards are between 5 – 15 credits. There is no longer a 30 credit standard required for vocational/workplace candidates.
  • In the explanatory notes, reference has been made to the New Zealand ALNE qualifications, to which the new standards have been aligned. These standards are a valid way of achieving the qualifications.

Cross-crediting

Cross-crediting between the ALNE Vocational/Workplace qualification and the Educator qualification is explicit in the areas of knowledge required for ALNE in Aotearoa New Zealand. The standards below may be used for both qualifications:

  • Unit 29622, Describe adult literacy and numeracy education in Aotearoa New Zealand (5 credits)
  • Unit 29625, Use assessment to strengthen adult literacy and numeracy teaching and learning (10 credits).

Other skills and knowledge in the above two areas, required for the specialist adult literacy and numeracy Educator qualification, are reflected in extra standards. A table, showing the relationship between new ALNE standards and NZ ALNE qualifications, is available in the document “List of ALNE stds showing relations.docx” (DOCX, 22KB).

ALNE standards may also be credited towards the New Zealand Certificate in Adult and Tertiary Teaching (Level 5) [Ref: 2993] in areas where the same skills and knowledge are required for these qualifications. Dependent on the programme design for these qualifications, there are potential overlaps in areas of design, facilitation, assessment and evaluation.

Transition period

The replaced ALNE standards are now designated as ‘expiring’. The last date for assessment against these standards is 31 December 2018. This is a transition period to allow time for providers to adjust their programmes and resources to the new standards. For more information on Expired and replaced unit standards go to Outcomes of unit standard reviews page.

Providers who currently have consent to assess ALNE unit standards will have this extended to the new standards automatically.

How Do You “Undertake Kaitiakitanga” In Education?

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Here’s my question of the day…

  • How do you “undertake Kaitiakitanga in an adult literacy and numeracy teaching environment”?

This comes from one of the Graduate Profile Outcomes in the New Zealand Diploma in Adult Literacy and Numeracy Education.

But what is Kaitiakitanga? And how do you undertake it?

From the Wikipedia:

Kaitiaki is a New Zealand term used for the Māori concept of guardianship, for the sky, the sea, and the land. A kaitiaki is a guardian, and the process and practices of protecting and looking after the environment are referred to as kaitiakitanga.

The concept and terminology have been increasingly brought into public policy on trusteeship or guardianship—in particular with the environmental and resource controls under the Resource Management Act.

Just a quick sidebar so I’m not misunderstood:

  • I’m Pakeha and I’m not an expert in these matters – I’m very much a learner.
  • I’m not trying to coopt or colonise this terminology.
  • I do understand that there are issues around how this concept has been interpreted (or misinterpreted) in relation to the Resource Management Act.
  • I am trying to understand what this terminology means in the context of NZQA qualification documents.
  • My text editor in WordPress doesn’t seem to allow me to insert macrons over letters, e.g. like over the letter “a” in Maori.
  • Any mistakes or misinterpretations are mine alone.
  • I am interested in your feedback and comments.

Below is what I understand at the moment with regards to Kaitiakitanga as a general concept. Further down, I’ll shift gears and bring this into an education context.

So let’s start with the more general use of the word and in relation to the environment:

  • Kaitiakitanga is most often used in relation to Maori ways of understanding the care and conservation of the land and other natural resources.
  • It has its source in Maori customary practice.
  • It is underpinned by an abstract and philosophical basis but in itself, it’s not abstract and should have visible and tangible effects.
  • In a contemporary context, it is flexible and fluid and open to modern interpretation including with areas such as social work and education, for example.
  • It is both a tool and a process.
  • It should be underpinned by advice, training, and experience.
  • It involves a set of obligations and responsibilities. This includes a responsibility to those who have come before you as well as those who will come after.
  • Its undertaking must result in a positive outcome.

The measurable effects of undertaking Kaitiakitanga in an environmental sense could include:

  • Restoration and enhancement of natural and other resources
  • Sustainability
  • Respect and awareness of issues of working with Maori
  • Recognising principles of the Treaty of Waitangi
  • Recognising the importance of culture and customs

And as applied to relationships:

  • It brings responsibility
  • It seeks to bring balance to the bond between people and place
  • It should be mana-enhancing. This means that it should not compromise others’ identities, self-worth, or trigger insecurities.

Now to shift to education: The older definition used by the NZQA in the current unit standards in various places states that (US21192 Ver 3, p.2):

Kaitiakitanga refers to the practical doing; and rules and tikanga of adult literacy and numeracy education.

This indicates that Kaitiakitanga has a definite practical aspect in education as well. E.g. there are things that you have to do, and ways that you have to do them.

According to the recently published Graduate Profile Outcome (GPO) 6 in the NZQA documentation for the New Zealand Diploma in Adult Literacy and Numeracy (p.4):

Kaitiakitanga refers to concepts of leadership, mentoring, coaching, care, guidance, nurturing, sharing, responsibilities, external consultation.

This is a much broader definition and indicates that we should not separate our understanding and undertaking of Kaitiakitanga from our roles as leaders and “caretakers” of knowledge. I think it’s a much better definition.

These concepts of leadership and care seem to be more holistic in nature (at least to me). My reasoning for this is that the concept of leadership and professional support is already referenced elsewhere in GPO 5 in relation to academic support:

Provide leadership and professional support to other practitioners working both within and across programmes (p.4).

Here professional support refers to:

that provided for academic and discipline-related teaching. It includes:

  • improving adult literacy and numeracy practices to inform other practitioners’ development
  • opportunities for exchange with other professionals to assist others

 

So… taken together, we can see an approach to leadership and guidance that includes both the academic and discipline related; as well as the more holistic and relational aspects where the primary concern is for the well-being of others including one’s fellow teachers as well as learners.

 

It may be the case, that in the real world there is actually no distinction between these… However, let’s assume that there is. Because we are going to need to measure it if we’re going to design qualifications that include it.

With that in mind, here are three frameworks for undertaking Kaitiakitanga.

For each of these, I’ve framed them in the first person and present tense. But they could just as easily be conceptualised for groups and/or applied retrospectively.

Frameworks for undertaking Kaitiakitanga

The Process

I’ve adapted these four steps from Hei whenua papatipu

  1. Kaupapa: What are my drivers?
  2. Mana Tu: What are my obligations and responsibilities?
  3. Tikanga Tiaki: What actions am I taking?
  4. Mauri Tu: What are the effects?

Applied principles

These are adapted from three applied principles that make up the Kaitiakitanga Draft Concept available on the Social Workers Registration Board website here.

The three applied principles and related elements are:

  1. Te Rangatiratanga: Are my actions…?
    • Mana enhancing
    • Self-determining
    • Respectful in relationships
    • Mindful of cultural uniqueness
    • Acknowledging of cultural identity
  2. Te Whanaungatanga: Am I…?
    • Connecting
    • Strengthening relationships
    • Contributing
    • Encouraging
    • Communicating
  3. Te Manaakitanga: Are my actions…?
    • Acknowledging boundaries
    • Mana enhancing
    • Ensuring safe space
    • Being respectful
    • Meeting obligations

Six Elements of Kaitiakitanga

This comes from social work as well. You can view the original powerpoint presentation here. While the six elements come from social work, the questions are my own.

  1. Te Tiaki – to care
    • What do I care about? Why?
    • How do I show this?
  2. Te Pupuri – to hold (holder of knowledge)
    • What knowledge do I hold that comes from outside of me? E.g. from my industry or sector?
    • What knowledge do I hold that comes from my life and experiences?
  3. Te Tuku – to transmit
    • What skills and values can I pass on to others?
    • What’s the best way to pass these on?
  4. Te Arataki –to guide
    • What kind of guidance can I provide to those around me?
    • What’s the best way to provide this guidance?
  5. Te Tautoko – to support
    • What kind of support do my colleagues and learners need?
    • How can I best support them?
  6. Te Tohutohu – to instruct or correct
    • What kind of expertise do I have?
    • How can I best teach what I know to others?

Any thoughts…? Corrections…? Please let me know if this is something you could work with.