Demands: What are some specific reading demands?


We are going to be working with the Read with Understanding strand. Now… let’s go through it slowly. If you are already an experienced mapper, please skip ahead to the assessment task.

1. Print out the Read with Understanding strand.

Make sure you have the Read with Understanding strand in front of you so you can refer to the details for each step.

It looks like this, but it will have descriptions of skills and knowledge in all of the steps. You can Download the Read with Understanding Strand Chart if you need to.

Read with Understanding

Screenshot 2017-03-16 10.44.252. Choose a specific sample reading text or task from your teaching programme.

Choose some kind of teaching material that your learners have to work with, not NZQA unit standard descriptions.

Here are some examples of samples that you could choose:

  • Several pages from a workbook containing difficult vocabulary or new terminology.
  • Pages from a Code of Practice that people don’t always understand.
  • Content from a workplace induction procedure.
  • A health and safety compliance document.
  • A complicated notice that people have to read and understand.
  • Relevant pages from an Act of Parliament that is relevant to training and assessment.

3. Have clear reasons for choosing the sample

In the assessment template, you’ll need to say why you chose the sample. There are lots of reasons. Here are some:

  • You might have chosen some teaching material that you already know causes difficulties for your learners.
  • You might already know that you need to create some new material to teach a new part of your programme.
  • Your supervisor or manager may have asked you to focus on something in particular.

4. Start your mapping with the Vocabulary progression

In a nutshell, what you’re going to do at every stage is refer to the Strand charts and then shade in your own chart down to the relevant step.

We’re going to practice with the vocabulary progression. This is the easiest place to start.

For most training that has a technical aspect, like trades or employment focused training, it’s safe to start at around step 4/5 for reading. Look at the description for vocabulary at step 4/5.

You’ll see the following:

“… a reading vocabulary that includes some general academic
words and some specialised words”.

Vocabulary Most adults will be able to
Koru / step 1 have a reading vocabulary of everyday words, signs and symbols.
Koru / step 2 have a reading vocabulary of everyday words that includes some compound words.
Koru / step 3 have a reading vocabulary of everyday words and some less common words, acronyms and abbreviations.
Koru / step 4 – 5 have a reading vocabulary that includes some general academic words and some specialised words.
Koru / step 6 have a large reading vocabulary that includes general academic words and specialised words and terms.


5. Use what you know about your own subject

At this point, you need to use your own knowledge of your training material or work to decide whether this applies. In other words:

  • Does the sample require your learners to be able to use some academic words (like “measure”, “demonstrate”, “evaluate”, for example)?
  • Does the material require your learners to use some words that are specific to your trade or specialised training content (“listeria” for catering, “glyphosate” for farming or horticulture, or “Nogs and dwangs” for carpentry, for example)?

If your answer was no, then you need to drop back to step 3 and see if that fits better. Step 3 for vocabulary means there are no academic words and no specialised or technical words.

If you answered yes, then you should push ahead to step 6 and see if the answer is still yes to the description there.

Step 6 applies to vocabulary where you expect your learners to be working with a large bank of academic and specialised or technical words.

If you work in trades, your material is probably at least at steps 4/5 or 6 for vocabulary.

If you have a lot of technical jargon to deal with then go with step 6. If there’s just a bit, but it’s not too much then go with steps 4/5, which is a combined step.

If you’re not sure about what step, this process works well if you do it together with a colleague who knows what you know about what you teach or train.

6. Map the demands on paper first

If you’re working on paper, get a highlighter and shade down from the top until you’ve included the highest step that you identified for vocabulary. You’ll end up with something like this:

Screenshot 2017-03-20 17.32.43

This is mapping. Above, we’ve mapped the vocabulary demands for reading at steps 4 / 5.

You can download a chart and worksheet here for mapping your own reading sample. It’s exactly the same as section 3.3 of your assessment task. Print this out and you can use it as a rough draft and for notes.

7. Map your reading sample against the rest of the progressions in the strand.

Once you’ve mapped vocabulary, you can move on to Decoding and then other progressions. The system is the same. For each relevant progression:

  • Start somewhere in the middle of the steps – say around step 3.
  • Read the description from the Strand Chart for this step.
  • Use your judgement and decide of your sample matches the description. If it doesn’t drop down to a lower step. If it does, go to a higher step and repeat.

If a progression is not relevant you can skip it. But make sure you have a reason for this as your tutor or assessor may ask you.

There is also some subjective judgement involved. But also, you are the expert here. You know your own content. In the case of vocabulary, it’s easy… If you see technical jargon, you can’t map it at step 3. It has to be above this.

Also, many of the skills and knowledge required at steps 1 and 2 is very developmental. For trades and most courses, you’re going to be mapping at step 3 and above.

In fact, if you are a trades tutor, you may find that much of your course is at step 5 and 6.

When you’ve mapped all of the relevant reading progressions for your sample, you might end up with something like this:

Screenshot 2017-03-20 17.32.54

This is mapping in visual terms. From here you need to be able to talk about your results and what they mean.

When you complete the assessment task, you’ll need to answer a series of questions to show that you know what you’ve just done.

These questions are in the assessment template and in the worksheet if you download it. They’re also here below:

  • What text or task did you use?
  • Why did you choose this as your sample?
  • Out of everything here, what are the most important progressions and steps?
  • What about planning for assessment and teaching?

In the template, there are prompts to help you answer the questions. Feel free to ignore them if you like. But they are there to help you get started writing your answers and guide you in the right direction.

If you can map a sample reading text and answer the questions above, you can move onto the next module. Keep your sample handy, though. You’ll need to scan it and upload it when you submit your finished assessment task.

Narrowing the focus: mapping to progressions and steps


Knowing the demands (14)

In the last two modules, you learned how to map your teaching programme to the strands and progressions of the Learning Progressions.

Next, we’ll be looking at how you map some specific samples of your teaching materials or other content to the progressions and steps of the Learning Progressions.

In the modules that follow, you’ll learn how to map specific demands for a sample of:

  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Number
  • Measurement

This will carry you through the rest of Assessment 3. By now you might have already downloaded the assessment template and made a start.

If you haven’t we’d encourage you to skip ahead and download the template. This means you can dip in and out of these modules as you need to.

We also suggest that you work your way through each module that follows but also refer back the material for reference or clarification.

Demands: Thinking deeper about your big picture numeracy demands


Knowing the demands (12)

Time to do some work

Let’s pause here again. Here’s what you need to do next:

  • Download the worksheet for numeracy, or use the chart below to get started on mapping the big picture numeracy demands for your situation.
  • As you did for literacy, say what each numeracy progression is in plain English and then rate it for importance for you. Justify your rating.
  • Then if you’ve rated a progression as important, say which tasks, calculations or what kind of work is affected. This might include work in the classroom or more practical work in other kinds of environments.

This task is not assessed, but it will help with the first part of your assessment.

Again, make sure that you keep your notes. You’ll need them for when you write up your answers in the assessment.

What are key N progressions?What are key N progressions continued?

Writing up the big picture numeracy demands

Make sure you keep your notes as you’ll want to refer to them when you write up your answers to the first part of Assessment 3.

In your assessment template, in section 3.2 you’ll need to identify the top two overall numeracy skill demands for your teaching.

Don’t forget that at this stage we are just interested in the strands and progressions that are relevant – in broad terms – to your teaching programme.

You’ll need to answer the following questions:

  • Why are these numeracy skill areas so demanding?
  • What does this affect?
  • What does this mean for learners?
  • What does this mean for teaching?
  • What does this mean for programme design?

If you’ve done enough thinking about this and you want to skip ahead to the assessment module and get started on section 3.2 you can. Just make sure you download and save the assessment template. Then come back to here when you’re ready for the next stage.

Like last time, if you want a bit more time to think about this, you can download the questions and some prompts as a worksheet here. The questions are the same as in your assessment template in section 3.2. The worksheet looks like the image below.

Screenshot 2017-03-20 09.45.26

Under the hood: Te whare tapa wha


tapawha2Te Whare Tapa Whā is a holistic model of health and wellbeing also known as hauora. Originally used in the healthcare sector, it’s now used in education and other settings including prisoner rehabilitation and career development.

Where does it come from?

Māori health expert Mason Durie developed the Whare Tapa Whā model of health in 1982. Professor Durie has affiliations with the Rangitane, Ngāti Kauwhata and Ngāti Raukawa tribes of New Zealand.

For over 40 years, Durie has been at the forefront of a transformational approach to Māori health and has played major roles in building the Māori health workforce.

What’s it for?

It’s for helping you think in a holistic way about health, education or any other issue affecting yourself or someone else.

What is it?

It’s a visual representation that shows a Māori wellbeing in four dimensions:

  • Taha wairua – the spiritual domain or well-being of your learner
  • Taha tinana – the physical domain or well-being of your learner
  • Taha whānau – the family or social well-being or domain of your learner
  • Taha hinengaro – the mental domain or well-being of your learner

Each of these are the different sides of a wharenui (meeting house).

In education, it’s a way of thinking about your learners more holistically. If each learner is like a whare, then it’s important that they are strong in each of the four dimensions. For example, if one or more sides of the house is weak or broken, then it’s likely the roof will fall in.

This way of thinking about our learners means that we have to think beyond the kinds of content that we want to teach. All four dimensions are necessary for strength and stability.

How is it relevant?

It’s relevant because you can use your knowledge of Te Whare Tapa Whā to enhance your teaching. This knowledge is drawn from Māori culture, but it’s not limited to working just with Māori.

Te Whare Tapa Whā explains the journey of many Māori learners and also outlines the tutor’s perspective towards this.

When we talk about a learner from the context of Te Whare Tapa Whā we place our learner at the centre. And that means that we can look at our learners in four different ways.

Most of our students go through a journey into our organisations. From a student’s perspective, this is the kind of conversation that they’re having with themselves even before they enter your classroom:

  1. Do I believe I can do this course? (Taha wairua).
  2. Do I have the resources I need to do this course? (Taha tinana).
  3. Do I have the support to do this course? (Taha whānau)
  4. Can I cope with the work in this course? (Taha hinengaro

What does it mean for me?

If you identify as Māori, the Whare Tapa Whā is a framework that allows you to talk about how you probably already work with your learners. If you are not Māori, the framework allows you to see your learners, particularly your Māori learners through new eyes.

It also means that the things that you think are the priority in your teaching environment, might not be for some of your learners. For example, learners who haven’t eaten breakfast are less likely to be interested in your great teaching resources.

One big implication is that you need to think about whether you’ve attended to all four domains from a Māori perspective.

Under the hood: Learning progressions for adult numeracy


Num Progs

The Learning Progressions for Adult Numeracy are part two of the Learning Progressions framework. We use the numeracy progressions to help us understand how to embed numeracy. Part one is the Literacy Progressions discussed in the last section.

Where does it come from?

The Tertiary Education Commission (TEC).

What’s it for?

The numeracy progressions are

  • A guide to identifying the next numeracy steps for adult learners.

As we saw with literacy in the last section, the Numeracy Progressions provide a framework that shows what adult learners know and can do at successive points as they develop their expertise in numeracy learning.

The progressions describe what is learned in the order that it is usually learned. And just as we can with the Literacy Progressions, we can use the Numeracy Progressions to:

  • Identify the numeracy-related demands of a specific workplace, community, or personal tasks and texts.
  • Gain a basic picture of an adult learner’s current skills, strategies and knowledge in numeracy.
  • Decide on a sequence for teaching and learning specific numeracy skills.

What is it?

Like the Literacy Progressions, the Numeracy Progressions are best understood visually as three grids. These grids are the numeracy strands. There is one for number, one for statistics, and another for measurement.

Together these three strands are the framework we use for numeracy. Here is the number strand.

screenshot-2017-02-15-22-04-15

The Number strand has six columns or progressions. In the strand above, the first column is the Additive Strategies Progression. We’ll talk about the details later, but for now all you need to know is that this includes addition and subtraction. And that there are six koru or steps going down from top to bottom.

Something else that’s good to know at this stage is that this strand has three strategies progressions on the right-hand side. And then you can see three other progressions on the left in grey. These grey ones are knowledge progressions.

This means that the koru or steps on the right includes all the things you need to know, in order to do all the things on the left. So the knowledge needs to come first.

Here’s the strand that includes shapes, space, and measurement.

screenshot-2017-02-15-22-05-57

As with the literacy strands we showed you before, we’ve taken out the details. All you need for now is to have an idea on how the framework is put together.

Module 3 is where we will fill in the details and show you how to work with it to work out the numeracy demands of your teaching or training.

To sum up, The Learning Progressions for Adult Numeracy are organised into three strands:

  • Make Sense of Number to Solve Problems
  • Reason Statistically
  • Measure and Interpret Shape and Space

As with literacy, each strand contains a group of progressions. Each progression highlights a particular area of knowledge or learning within a strand, for example, measurement.

And as before, each step or koru in a progression represents a development step as learners strengthen or build their expertise.

How is it relevant?

Everything that we said before about the Literacy Progressions applies here. Except the focus is on numeracy. The underlying idea is that the numeracy progressions can help you teach better.

Our focus in this course, involves you using the numeracy progressions to do the following.

  • Work out the numeracy demands of your teaching (Module 3 – Demands).
  • Design strategies for embedding numeracy into your programme (Module 4).
  • Assess and understand your learners’ numeracy needs better (Module 5 – Before).
  • Plan how to embed numeracy into teaching and activities (Module 6 – Teaching).
  • Assess learner numeracy progress (Module 7 – After).

What does it mean for me?

Once you have a working knowledge of the Learning Progressions you’ll be able to focus on better teaching by understanding the demands of your training, the strengths and needs of your learners, and what you need to do to move your learners on to the next step.

As with literacy there are implications for you relating to assessment. If you use the Literacy and Numeracy for Adults Assessment Tool (LNAAT), you’ll need to do a numeracy assessment as well.

This one also generates a detailed report for each learner showing key numeracy strengths and needs. It looks like this.

num-assm

Make sure that you have access to these reports. In an ideal world, you should have electronic access to the tool itself. But if you don’t, then ask your tool admin person to email them to you.

We’ll show you how to make sense of the information later. This will be a key part of Module 5 when we cover the kinds of diagnostic tools and processes you can use to be a better, more informed educator.

Under the hood: The Learning Progressions for Adult Literacy


Lit ProgsThe Learning Progressions for Adult Literacy are one of the main frameworks we use for understanding how to embed literacy. We often refer to it as just the Literacy Progressions.

It’s part of a pair of progressions we use in adult teaching. The other one is the Learning Progressions for Adult Numeracy. More on that in the next section, though.

Where does it come from?

The Learning Progressions were created by the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC). The TEC directs and funds much of tertiary education in New Zealand.

What’s it for?

The Literacy Progressions are

  • A guide to identifying the next literacy steps for adult learners.

The progressions provide a framework that shows what adult learners know and can do at successive points as they develop their expertise in literacy learning.

The progressions also describe what is learned in the order that it is usually learned. This means it’s a tool for helping us teach better. This includes:

  • Identifying the English-language demands of a specific workplace, community, or personal tasks and texts.
  • Working out a basic picture of an adult learner’s current skills, strategies and knowledge in oral and written English.
  • Deciding on a sequence for teaching and learning specific literacy skills.

What is it?

The easiest way to understand what the Literacy Progressions are is to see them. There are four grids. One for each of listening, reading, listening and speaking. These four grids are called strands. Together they are the framework we use for literacy.

Here is the reading strand.

screenshot-2017-02-15-21-29-49In the reading strand above you can see five columns. These columns are the progressions. If you look across the top, you can see what they are called. For example, in the reading strand above, the second column is the Vocabulary Progression.

Each progression has several boxes. These boxes are numbered. At the top, the first box is called koru 1 or step 1. As we go down, the koru or steps increase. At the bottom of the progression is step 6.

Sometimes several koru or steps are combined. For example, in the vocabulary progression you can see koru 1, 2 and 3, but then a combined koru 4/5 which is a larger box. These double steps mean that the learning at this step takes some time to develop and really sink in.

Here’s the writing strand.screenshot-2017-02-15-21-33-29

Again, you can see some single steps and some double. The full version of each strand has a lot of information at each step. We’ve taken out all the details for now. We just want you to get the idea without getting bogged down. We’ll come back to this detail in module 3. Feel free to skip ahead if you think you need it, though.

We’ll come back to this detail in module 3. Feel free to skip ahead if you think you need it, though.

To sum up, The Learning Progressions for Adult Literacy are organised into four strands:

  • Listen with Understanding
  • Speak to Communicate
  • Read with Understanding
  • Write to Communicate.

Each strand contains a group of progressions. Each progression highlights a particular area of learning within a strand, for example,  vocabulary. And each step or koru in a progression represents a development step as learners build their expertise.

How is it relevant?

The literacy progressions are relevant because they can help you teach better. In this course, you’ll learn how to use the literacy progressions framework to help you do the following.

  • Work out the literacy demands of your teaching (Module 3 – Demands).
  • Design strategies for embedding literacy into your programme (Module 4).
  • Understand your learners’ literacy needs better (Module 5 – Before).
  • Plan how to embed literacy into teaching and activities (Module 6 – Teaching).
  • Assess learner literacy progress (Module 7 – After).

What does it mean for me?

What it means for you is that you can better understand the demands of your training, the needs of your learners, and what you need to do to bridge any gaps between where the course is at and where your learners are at.

Another implication for you relates to assessment. Many tutors already assess their learners using the Literacy and Numeracy for Adults Assessment Tool (LNAAT).

This assessment tool generates a detailed literacy report for each learner that looks like this.

lit-assessm

Some tutors assess their learners using the tool but never get to see the results like this. If that you, then ask for the reports. Otherwise, it’s a wasted opportunity for better teaching and learning.

As a teacher or a trainer, you can’t make sense of this information if you don’t understand the literacy progressions. If you do understand how the progressions work, then you can use the information to help you make better decisions in your teaching.

Better decisions mean better teaching.

We’ll take a good look at this assessment tool and how it works in Module 5. This is when we’ll look at how you assess your learners’ literacy needs. And this includes using the LNAAT, but also using your own tools for your own context.

Where do I find the full versions of the Learning Progressions?


The TEC have decided that they will not print any more copies of the Learning Progressions resources. Nor do they have any plans to print them again.

Rather these are available online only now, and you can just use them as electronic documents or you can print them out yourself.

You can download the main books in the links below. These are each 1MB PDF files. There are also the double-page strand charts further down as well which would probably open up on your phone if needed.

Learning Progressions for Adult Numeracy

Learning Progressions for Adult Literacy (PDF, 1 MB)

Strand charts and Guidebooks

Open Source Learning Progressions

And just as an interesting aside, the progressions are now licensed for re-use by the TEC under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Licence.

This means, in essence, we are free to copy, distribute and adapt these documents for non-commercial purposes, as long as we attribute them to the TEC and abide by the other licence terms.

And that means we could remix and potentially upgrade them… in other words, develop Learning Progressions 2.0. Anyone interested?